Local Government & The People

People, Places, Culture and Tourism in Plateau State

   Explore the rich heritage and diverse cultural experiences of Plateau State, along with insights into its picturesque landscapes and vibrant communities.

 

Barkin-Ladi:

Barkin Ladi, also known as Barakin Ladi, is a Local Government Area located in Plateau State, Nigeria. Its administrative headquarters is situated in the town of Barkin Ladi, situated at coordinates 9°32′00″N latitude and 8°54′00″E longitude. Covering an area of approximately 1,032 square kilometers, it had a population of 175,267 people according to the 2006 census. The postal code for this area is 932. Notably, the Plateau State Polytechnic is located in Barkin Ladi.

 

Traditional Festivals:

 

Barkin Ladi is steeped in rich cultural traditions, and it celebrates several traditional festivals that are significant in heralding the farming season and expressing gratitude to the gods for a bountiful harvest. Two of the major festivals in the region are:

 

1. Mandyeng Festival: Typically celebrated in the month of April, the Mandyeng Festival holds great importance in all districts of Barkin Ladi and in other Berom lands beyond the local government. It marks the commencement of the farming season, and it’s a highly respected and significant event. In recent times, the Mandyeng Festival has evolved into a larger celebration known as “Nzem Berom,” which amalgamates Mandyeng festivals from all Berom districts at a central location.

 

2. Vwana Festival: This festival is celebrated after the harvest of all crops, serving as a mark of gratitude to God for a successful and rich harvest. It embodies the joy and thankfulness of the community after a season of hard work in the fields.

 

Traditional Attire

 

The Berom people of Barkin Ladi take great pride in their traditional attire, especially during festivities. Leather clothing, particularly that made from leopard skin, is highly revered, especially among warriors. During festivals and cultural events, it is common to see individuals adorned in these traditional garments. Additionally, bamboo leaf caps are a notable feature of their attire, adding to the cultural charm of the region. While traditional clothing is cherished, Western-style attire is also commonly worn, reflecting the blend of tradition and modernity in Barkin Ladi.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Barkin Ladi Local Government: 

Maize, Potatoes, Vegetables, Cocoyam, Acha, Millet, Cowpea, Kidney beans, Finger millet (tamba).

 

Local Markets in Barkin Ladi: 

– Danrowa Tsoho Market (Tuesday); Crops Sold: Maize, Vegetables, Tomatoes.

– Bakin Kogi Market (Wednesday); Crops Sold: Yams, Cassava Flour, Maize.

– Barkin Ladi (Saturday): Maize, Irish Potatoes.

– Kasuwan Tomatoes (Seasonal – Daily Market).

– Gashish Kura Falls (Friday).

 

Bassa: 

 

Bassa, a vibrant Local Government Area located in the northern region of Plateau State, Nigeria, boasts a rich cultural tapestry and an abundance of natural beauty. Nestled along the borders of Kaduna and Bauchi States, its administrative center lies in the town of Bassa, situated at coordinates 9°56′00″N 8°44′00″E.

 

Spanning an expansive area of 1,743 square kilometers, Bassa is home to a diverse population that counted 186,859 residents during the 2006 census. Within this melting pot of cultures, numerous languages find voice, including Irigwe, Amo, Rukuba, Buji, Chawe, Jere, Gusu, Kurama, Limoro, Tariya, Sanga, Janji, Duguza, and Chokobo.

 

One of the cornerstones of life in Bassa is its thriving agricultural sector. The fertile land blesses the people with the ability to cultivate and prepare a range of traditional foods that reflect their culinary heritage. Some of these delightful dishes include:

 

1. Moimoi: A savory delicacy enjoyed by many, prepared with care and culinary artistry.

2. Kpewe: This delightful dish combines Acha and beans, resulting in a delicious fusion of flavors.

3. Tinni: A culinary masterpiece created from a blend of millet, beniseed, and beans, crafting a taste that is truly unique.

4. Kambar: Crafted from sweet potatoes, gwote, water yam, and more, this dish showcases the diversity of local ingredients.

 

Beyond its culinary offerings, Bassa Local Government Area comes alive with an array of festivals that resonate with the local culture. These festivals not only celebrate tradition but also provide a glimpse into the heart and soul of the community. Some of the notable festivals in Bassa include:

 

1. Remeze (Buji): An occasion marked by vibrant celebrations and cultural rituals that unite the community.

2. Irigwe New Year Celebration: A joyous event that welcomes the promise of a new year with traditional customs and festivities.

3. Anchoncho: A hunting festival celebrated by the Bache (Rukuba) people, paying homage to their heritage and skills.

4. Amo New Year Celebration: A time-honored tradition that ushers in the new year with great enthusiasm and cultural significance.

 

Bassa Local Government Area stands as a testament to the diversity, cultural richness, and culinary artistry of its people. Its festivals and traditions not only celebrate the past but also lay the foundation for a vibrant future, where the flavors of tradition and the spirit of unity continue to thrive.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Bassa Local Government: Acha, Maize, Beans, Yams, Groundnut, Potatoes, Soya beans, Beniseed, Finger millet (tamba).

 

Local Markets in Bassa 

– Saya Market (Monday); Crops Sold: Maize, Sweet Potatoes, Tamba, Benea Seed, Tomatoes.

– Kwall Market(Thursday); Crops Sold: Maize, Sweet Potatoes, Jamba, Benea seed, Tomatoes, coco yam.

– Jengre Market (Sunday): Crop Sold: Maize.

 

Jos East:

Jos East is a Local Government Area located in Plateau State, Nigeria, with its administrative headquarters situated in the town of Angware. This region, nestled in the heart of Plateau State, is known for its unique cultural heritage and significant natural beauty. Here are some essential details about Jos East LGA:

 

Geography and Demographics

-Location:Jos East LGA is situated within Plateau State.

– Area:Covering an expansive area of 1,020 square kilometers.

– Population:According to the 2006 census, the LGA had a population of 85,602 people.

 

Language

The predominant language spoken in Jos East is Afizere, reflecting the linguistic diversity of the region.

 

Afizere Festivals

Jos East LGA is rich in cultural traditions, and some of the notable Afizere festivals celebrated in the area include:

 

1. Igœn Izere: Held on the first day of January, this festival serves as a gathering of the sons and daughters of Izere land to express gratitude to God for the new year. It’s a vibrant celebration of culture, unity, and a time for reflecting on the region’s history.

 

2. ISA’A: Celebrated upon the passing of an elderly man in the community, this festival underscores the culture’s deep respect for its elders.

 

3. INYAK ABUKOH: Similar to ISA’A, this festival is observed upon the passing of an elderly woman, paying homage to the wisdom and contributions of senior community members.

 

4. IZHAK: This festival marks the transition to adulthood and typically involves a ceremonial circumcision within the youthful age group.

 

5. IYAH RIGWOM: This festival centers around the selection, installation, and crowning of a new king or traditional ruler. It is a significant event that reinforces cultural values and leadership within the community.

 

Purpose of The Festivals

These festivals are celebrated at specific times of the year and serve various purposes, including:

– Sustaining and preserving cultural heritage.

– Promoting unity, peace, and community development.

– Seeking blessings for a bountiful harvest and fertility.

– Recognizing and honoring the roles of elders and leaders in the community.

 

Jos East LGA’s vibrant cultural festivals reflect the deep-rooted traditions and values of the Afizere people and contribute to the region’s unique cultural identity.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Jos East Local Government: Bowpeas, Soybeans, Groundnut, Yam, Rice, Cassava, Acha, Guinea corn, Sweet potatoes.

 

Local Market in Jos East: 

Angware (Fobur, Thursday).

 

Jos North

 

Jos North Local Government is a region teeming with rich history, captivating tourism, and vibrant culture. Nestled naturally at a high altitude, it enjoys a favorable climate and boasts unparalleled scenic beauty in the country. It’s renowned for its harmonious coexistence among diverse nationalities, earning the moniker “heart beat of peace.”

 

Among its prominent ethnic groups, the Afizere, Anaguta, and Beroms stand out. The Anaguta people, whose name means “people of the bow,” celebrate the Agau festival, reflecting their expertise in archery and commemorating their role in the Naraguta war of 1873.

 

The Tukunkun festival, held during the rainy season, seeks divine blessings for a bountiful harvest and family prosperity while preserving cultural heritage. Upuri, known as the “festival of drums,” infuses energy into farming through rhythmic drumming. Rigisau marks infant marriage agreements, strengthening family bonds, and Tikank showcases the leaf festival’s culinary traditions.

 

The Anaguta’s cuisine centers around guinea corn, millet, cocoyam, native yam, and other local delights, while their attire reflects their culture, with men donning animal skins and women wearing special leaves.

 

The Afizere people, known for their hospitality, celebrate I Goon Izere on New Year’s Day, a cultural gathering fostering unity and reflection. Other festivals like Isa’a, Inyak Abukoh, Izhak, and Iyah Rigwom commemorate respect for elders, adulthood, and royal traditions.

 

Jos North boasts numerous tourist attractions, including Gog and Magog hills, Igbek Kusok Nyak, Jos Wildlife Park, and more, offering a rich tapestry of natural wonders and cultural experiences.

 

The Afizere people’s traditional attire symbolizes agriculture, strength, entrepreneurship, peace, and financial stability through the colors green, black, yellow, white, and cowry shells.

 

The Berom people, primarily farmers, celebrate Nzemberom, a grand annual cultural festival showcasing their rich heritage in music, dance, crafts, cuisine, and more. Mandieng, Buna, Nshok, and Badu are other festivals celebrating various aspects of their culture.

 

Berom traditional attire, including Tyet fans, brass and copper bangles, Iwelefwo necklaces, and Vabo Fwing earrings, adds a colorful touch to their festivities. Their cuisine features dishes like Tukchun, Tere, and Kpan, reflecting their culinary traditions.

 

Jos North’s abundant human resources and natural beauty, combined with its historical and cultural wealth, have the potential to foster cultural exchange, enhance international relations, and boost the country’s tourism industry, ultimately contributing to economic growth and community development.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Jos North Local Government: 

 

Maize, Vegetables, Beans, Acha, Olive fruits, Soybeans, Coffee, Guinea corn, Apples, Cut flowers.

 

Markets in Jos North: 

 

– Katako Market (Daily); Items Sold: Grains, Timber, Secondhand goods, others.

– Gada Biu (Daily); Items Sold: Food Stuff, especially vegetables.

– Farin Gada Market (Daily); Items Sold: Vegetables.

– Nassarawa Market (Daily); Items Sold: Foods stuff.

– Yan Shanu Market (Daily); Item sold: Livestock.

– Yan Kaji Market (Daily); Items Sold: Chickens, Eggs.

– Yan Tinka Market (Daily); Item Sold: Scrap Metal works.

– Yan Doya Market (Daily); Items Sold: Yams, Irish Potatoes.

 

Jos South:

 

Jos South Local Government, established on October 1st, 1996, has its headquarters situated in Bukuru. Geographically, it is bordered by Jos-North Local Government to the North, Jos-East Local Government to the East, Barkin Ladi to the South, Riyom Local Government to the South West, and Bassa to the North West.

 

A crucial transportation artery, the Bukuru expressway, connects states in the North East to Abuja, Lagos, and other regions in the Southern and Eastern parts of Nigeria. While the Berom people are the indigenous ethnic group in this local government, the area has seen an influx of other tribes such as the Hausa, Igbo, Fulani, Yoruba, and other Plateau ethnic groups, primarily due to tin mining activities.

 

Jos South Local Government comprises five districts: Vwang, Kuru, Gyel, Zawan, and Du, encompassing a land area of 1037 square kilometers.

 

The region possesses significant tourism potential owing to its physical and natural beauty. It is adorned with volcanic rocks and mountains, making it a magnet for tourists from across the globe. Some notable tourist attractions in the area include the Wild Life Park, Rayfield Golf Club, Solomon Lar Amusement Park, Yakubu Gowon Dam Shen, Azi Nyako Youth Center, and Rayfield Resort. These venues offer unique and memorable recreational experiences for both citizens and tourists. The local hospitality industry further complements these attractions, with establishments like Rock Land Motel, B & B Motel, Zawan Guest Inn, Crest Hotel, HBC Resorts, Honney Guests Inn, Chindi Hotel, Mountains Green Hotel, Elim Suite and Hotel, among others, providing relaxation options.

 

Traditional festivals in Jos South, which mark the beginning and end of the farming season, are of cultural significance:

 

MANDYENG FESTIVAL: Celebrated in April to usher in the farming season, this festival is highly respected and observed in all districts and other Berom lands. Mandyeng has evolved into Nzem Berom, a central gathering of Mandyeng festivals from various Berom districts.

 

VWANA FESTIVAL: Held after the harvest of all crops, Vwana festival serves as a mark of gratitude to God for a bountiful harvest.

 

In terms of traditional attire, the Berom people of Jos South often wear leather clothing, especially leopard skin for warriors, coupled with a bamboo leaf cap, particularly during festivities. However, Western-style clothing is also common.

 

Further enriching the local tourism landscape, the Azi Nyako Youth Center in Dadin Kowa offers both indoor and outdoor recreational facilities and includes a hall available for state events and rental purposes.

 

One of the area’s spectacular natural wonders is the Vwang rock formation, known for maintaining a constant cool temperature regardless of the weather, making it a delightful attraction for tourists.

 

In summary, Jos South Local Government is a diverse and culturally rich region bursting with immense tourism potential. It not only supports tourism development in Plateau State but also has the capacity to contribute significantly to Nigeria’s tourism industry.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated Jos South Local Government : Acha, Millet, Maize Potatoes, Vegetables, Coffee, Sweet potatoes, Apples, Olive fruits, Cut flowers.

 

Markets in Jos South: 

– Yan Gongoni (Daily); Items Sold: Waste recycling.

– Abbatoir (Daily); Item Sold: Meat Market in Conjunction with state Building Materials Market (Tuesdays).

– Kara Market (Daily); item sold: Livestock, Guinea Corn, Maize, millet, Acha.

– Bukuru Market (Saturday); Item sold: Thrift/Secondhand clothing, Household goods.

 

Riyom:

Riyom Local Government Area, often referred to as the gateway to the federal capital territory, Abuja, came into existence on October 1, 1996. Its creation was part of an initiative by the Late General Sani Abacha’s administration to bring government services closer to the grassroots through the establishment of the third tier of government.

 

Location:

Riyom Local Government is strategically positioned 36 kilometers southwest of Jos South Local Government Area. It shares its borders with Barkin Ladi Local Government Area to the southeast, while Kaura and Sanga Local Government Areas in Kaduna State lie to the northwest and southwest.

 

Land Mass and Population:

Covering an expansive landmass of 768.75 square kilometers, Riyom Local Government Area was home to a population of 72,581 people, according to the 2006 National Population Census.

 

Political Structure:

For efficient administration, Riyom Local Government Area is subdivided into three districts: Ganaawuri, Riyom, and Bachi districts. Each district is overseen by graded district heads, with Ganawuri chiefdom enjoying the leadership of a first-class chief, Ata Yakubu Chai Mang.

 

Tourism Potentials:

Riyom is renowned for its remarkable tourist attractions, including:

 

1. Riyom Picturesque Rock Formation: Nestled between Hoss and Riyom town, this natural wonder is a major draw for tourists.

 

2. Kahwang Basalt Rock Formation: Riyom boasts one of only two Kahwang Basalt rock formations globally, with the other located in Ireland. Potential for development into a tourist center is yet to be fully realized.

 

3. Kwi Conical Hill: Situated in Kwi ward of the LGA, this hill is another captivating tourist site.

 

4. Assop Waterfall: Located in Sopp ward along the Abuja-Jos road, Assop Falls has served as a resort center operated by the Plateau State Tourism Corporation for over two decades.

 

5. Oracle Cave (Chwack): Found in Bum ward of Ganawuri Chiefdom, this cave is steeped in local lore and beckons explorers.

 

6. Vum (Bottomless Pit): A geological curiosity that adds to the area’s mystique.

 

Cultural Festivals:

Riyom LGA is home to three distinct ethnic groups: Berom, Atten, and Attakar, each with its own cultural festivals.

 

– Berom Ethnic Group: Celebrates the Vwanna and Mandieng festivals. Vwanna, signifying the onset of the rainy season, takes place in April annually. Mandieng, symbolizing the start of the harvest season, is celebrated in November.

 

– Atten and Attakar of Ganawuri Chiefdom: Observe festivals like Wuru Dagarang, commemorating their ancestors’ migration due to tsetse fly infection, every 15th December. Richen festival, celebrating the first Acha harvest, is typically held in September. Nep festival marks the harvest of new root crops like yam and cocoyam.

 

Riyom Local Government Area stands as a testament to Plateau State’s rich cultural diversity and natural beauty, attracting visitors from near and far.

 

Agriculture and Crops cultivated in Riyom Local Government: Ginger, Palm trees, Acha, Millet, Guinea corn, Vegetables, Yams, Sugar cane, Secuvam, Cassava, Olive fruits, Citrus, Potatoes, Sweet potatoes.

 

Local Markets in Riyom: 

– Ta Hoss Market; Items sold: Maize, acha, benny seed, vegetables, potatoes, carrots, cabbage, beans.

– Ganawuri Market )Wednesday); Items sold: Firewood, rice, millet, cocoyam. Yam, Sugar cane.

 

 

Bokkos:

 

Bokkos is home to a community of industrious individuals, where the blend of natural wonders and human-made attractions converge harmoniously. This region enjoys favorable weather conditions and a unique geographical landscape that distinguishes it from others.

 

Tourism thrives in Bokkos, nurtured by the amalgamation of peace, captivating sites, rich cultural traditions, delightful cuisine, and the exceptional character of its people. The 2006 census reported a total population of 179,550 in this Local Government Area, encompassing three major Chiefdoms: Ron, Kulere, and Mushere. Saf Ron holds a distinguished position as the First Class traditional ruler, presiding over the region’s traditional institutions.

 

These three tribes, Ron, Mushere, and Kulere, share certain cultural practices, norms, and values. The Ron tribe, primarily found in Bokkos, Daffo, Manguna, and Sha Districts, predominantly speaks the Ron language. Meanwhile, the Mushere District hosts the Mushere people, conversing in the Mushere Language. Additionally, residents of Richa, Kamwai, and Toff Districts converse in the Kulere Language.

 

Bokkos celebrates cultural festivals that are integral to the fabric of its society. The Mushere Chiefdom annually hosts the Puus Kang festival between March and May, proudly showcasing the rich Mushere culture. In contrast, the Ron and Kulere people do not have a central cultural festival. Instead, each district and community commemorates its festivals, marking the beginning of the farming season. Some notable examples include Nahwai in Butura, Mudurat in Mbar, Toll in Daffo, Shagau in Manguna, Kungo in Tangur, and Bell in Forof, among others. The Kulere Chiefdom features festivals like Akandi Akir, Akandi Ador, and Kamma, celebrated in Kamwai, Toff, and Richa, respectively.

 

A beloved delicacy in Bokkos is “Bibal,” a sumptuous dish made from red beans, palm and coconut oil, combined with black bene seeds. This culinary delight is commonly prepared and savored during festivals, weddings, coronation ceremonies, and various social gatherings. Another cherished treat among the locals is the “Bibal” of “Acha,” where meat is expertly cooked and spiced with palm oil and “ache” flour.

 

The Ron Kulere culture also places great importance on “Vwashmalum,” a nourishing meal comprising acha and a special soup, traditionally prepared using bare hands when the water is cold. This soup is believed to have transformative properties that contribute to the people’s overall well-being and high agricultural productivity.

 

Bokkos has recently gained recognition from the Nigerian Tourism Development Commission (NTDC), which celebrated World Tourism Day in Butura Gida in 2019. This event aimed to showcase the world-famous mystical stone bridge constructed across the rivers of Butura, attributed to Chanadere, a noble warrior of the past.

 

Notable attractions in Bokkos include the renowned Sha waterfall, situated on the border between Plateau and Nassarawa states. This waterfall, aside from its picturesque beauty, holds the potential for hydroelectricity generation. The enigmatic rock formations scattered throughout Sha and other parts of the local government area served as ancestral shelters during times of enemy attacks. Moreover, the Kulere region of Bokkos boasts undulating hills and mountains adorned with graceful palm trees, evoking a Caribbean-like ambiance for first-time visitors.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Bokkos Local Government: 

 

Maize, Potatoes, Kidney beans, Avocado pear, Olive fruits, Palm/trees, Coffee, Sugar cane, Apples, Sweet potatoes, Cocoyam, Finger millet (tamba), Vegetables, Acha.

 

Local Market in Bokkos: 

– Maikatako Market (Monday); Crops Sold: Irish Potatoes, Maize.

– Daffo Market (Tuesday); Crops Sold: Irish Potatoes, Maize.

– Bokkos Market (Thursday); Crops Sold: Irish Potatoes, Maize, Olives.

 

Mangu:

 

The Puus Kaat Festival of Art and Culture serves as the grand unifier of hunting festivals organized across various districts, earning it the prestigious title of the mother of all festivals in Mwaghavul land, located within Mangu Local Government Area.

 

Mwaghavul people form the primary indigenous ethnic group in Mangu LGA, and their affairs are overseen by a monarch known as “the Mishkaham Mwaghavul.” To foster unity among the Mwaghavul community and consolidate their collective identity, the Mwaghavul Development Association (MDA) was established. The Puus Kaat festival emerged as a crucial tool in achieving this unity.

 

In 1987, under the leadership of Da. Chief Barr. Danjuma Maina, the MDA organized the inaugural Puus Kaat Festival of Art and Culture in Mangu, the Local Government Headquarters. Puus Kaat’s primary objectives are to gather Mwaghavul sons and daughters, whether residing locally or in the Diaspora, and to safeguard the rich Mwaghavul heritage.

 

The Puus Kaat celebration is a vibrant affair, encompassing a range of activities:

 

1. Exhibition of Mwaghavul Cultural Artifacts: This showcase offers a glimpse into the cultural treasures of the Mwaghavul people.

 

2. Horse Racing: A thrilling display of equine prowess, adding an element of excitement to the festival.

 

3. Traditional Lighting of Fire: A ceremonial act that holds cultural significance.

 

4. Display of Masquerades: Traditional masquerades play a prominent role in the festivities, adding a touch of mystique and tradition.

 

5. Display of Traditional Cuisines: A delectable array of traditional Mwaghavul dishes is on offer, allowing attendees to savor the local culinary heritage.

 

6. Dance Performances: Various dance groups, including those from other ethnic backgrounds invited to partake, contribute to the lively atmosphere.

 

Puus Kaat stands as a testament to the cultural richness and unity of the Mwaghavul people, showcasing their vibrant traditions and heritage.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Mangu Local Government: Maize, Potatoes, Guinea corn, Cocoyam, Sweet potatoes, Kidney beans, Cowpea, Sugar cane, Acha.

 

Local Markets in Mangu: 

– Mangu Market; Items sold: Maize, Vegetables, Irish potatoes.

– Pushit Market (Wednesday); Items sold: Maize, Irish Potatoes, Vegetables.

– Ampang Market; Items Sold: Maize, vegetables, Irish potatoes.

– Kerang Market (Tuesday); Items sold: Maize, vegetables, Irish Potatoes.

– Gindiri Market (Saturday); Items sold Cassava, Maize.

– Mangun Market (Thursday); Items sold: Irish potatoes, maize, cocoyam.

– Panyam Market (Thursday); Items sold: Cocoyam, maize.

 

Pankshin

 

Pankshin Local Government Area epitomizes Plateau State’s reputation as the “Home of Peace and Tourism.” It’s surrounded by both natural wonders and man-made tourist attractions, showcasing the state’s diverse beauty.

 

The natural landscape is awe-inspiring, characterized by captivating rock formations, majestic hills with unique structures, and other intriguing features that make Pankshin a visual delight. Notable tourist destinations include Manung Hills, Wulmi Hills, Zungmenen (Dutse-fada) Hills, Zuul Baal Volcanic Hill, Wangkang (Kadung), and the Cycad Plant.

 

Pankshin is a melting pot of diverse ethno-linguistic groups, each with its distinct language. Among them are the Ngas, Mupun, Miship, Pain, Fyer, Tal, and Kadung communities.

 

The region hosts a vibrant tapestry of festivals, each timed according to seasons and community needs:

 

NGAS FESTIVALS

 

1. Morgi Festival: Held annually in February or early March, it seeks blessings from the land’s gods for a prosperous planting season and bountiful harvest.

 

2. Moslum Festival: Celebrated in April/May during the dry season, it marks the start of ridging for crop planting and aims to enhance productivity in agriculture and fertility.

 

3. Mostar Festival: An annual celebration in anticipation of the new moon, typically observed around October-November, it includes first fruit rituals.

 

TAL FESTIVALS

1. Komting Festival: Occurs once every ten years, featuring a magical power demonstration by males to protect the community.

 

2. Didang Festival: An evening performance by young people after a day’s work.

 

3. Khung Dhal: A ceremonial dance honoring deceased elders aged seventy and above.

 

PAI FESTIVALS

 

1. Tipang Festival: Celebrated in March and April, it acknowledges a supreme god and mediators between this deity and humanity.

 

2. Tikuyi Festival: Held around October/November, this marriage festival allows couples to showcase their fame and wealth.

 

KADUNG FESTIVALS

 

1. Ponda Wan: A seasonal event celebrating young male children and preparing them for adulthood in the community.

 

2. Naska Kadung: An annual showcase of Kadung cultural heritage, officially held on the last Saturday of each year.

 

Pankshin’s diverse ethno-linguistic groups also contribute to its rich culinary landscape, with each group offering a unique array of traditional dishes. Some traditional dishes include Munsura, Nguk, Lama, Gwom Suwa Khim Romdut, Takpuk, Tokshangham, Woplem, and Wopsei, reflecting the region’s vibrant culinary traditions.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Pankshin Local Government: Maize, Rice, Acha, Potatoes, Olive fruits, Millet, Guinea corn, Cowpeas, Tomatoes.

 

Local Markets in Pankshin: 

 

– Pankshin Monday Market (Monday); Items sold: Tomatoes, acha, Millet, maize, Irish Potatoes.

– Dyis Market (Monday); Items sold: Irish potatoes, ground nuts, mixed beans.

– Chip Market (Thursday); Items Sold: Ground nuts, white beans, maize, palm oil, palm wine.

– Kwalla Market (Tuesday); Items sold: Rice, sugar cane, yam.

 

Kanke :

 

Kanke Local Government Council came into existence in 1996. This vibrant local government area, covering approximately 1,000 square kilometers, is home to around 120,000 people. Kanke LGA comprises four districts: Ampang, Garram, Amper, and Kabwir.

 

Main Tribes:

The predominant tribe in Kanke LGA is the Ngas, with small communities of Taroh, Sayawa, and Boggom residing in border areas.

 

Tourism:

Kanke LGA is a treasure trove of natural beauty and tourist potential. Its landscape features undulating plains, striking rock formations, rock pedestals, and captivating escarpments, all awaiting exploration.

 

Major Tourist Sites:

1. Kuwang District Palace in Ampang District:A historical and cultural gem.

2. Man and Dog Footprints at Kagar Ampang and Seri in Amper Districts: Mysterious footprints etched in stone.

3. Tom Tom Spring Water in Garram District: A refreshing natural spring.

 

Festivals:

Kanke LGA celebrates a tapestry of festivals, showcasing its rich cultural heritage. Some notable festivals include:

 

– Pusdung: Known as the “Mother of all festivals in Ngas Land,” this festival holds immense cultural significance.

– Mostar: A festival dedicated to the moon, celebrated prior to the planting of crops.

– Moslun: Marks the end of the dry season.

– Mosler: Commemorates the beginning of the new planting season.

– Moswong: A vibrant masquerade festival, typically celebrated in August or September.

 

Additional festivals unique to specific communities include:

– Arkem: Prominent among Amper people.

– Pangkim: Celebrated enthusiastically among Ampang people.

– Bwirit: A cherished festival in Kabwir culture.

 

Local Dishes:

Kanke LGA boasts a delectable array of local dishes, including:

– Puk fori

– Puk lendeng

– Puk komtori

– Puk wap

– Ngwim ass

– Bwan, and many more.

 

Cultural Attires:

The people of Kanke LGA express their cultural identity through various traditional attires such as:

– Bene

– Banta

– Zwalchip

– Zwalshit

– Sakiki fotat

– Mbat

– Bum

– Sewa

 

Kanke Local Government Area is not just a geographical entity; it’s a mosaic of diverse cultures, stunning landscapes, and vibrant traditions, making it a hidden gem for tourists and cultural enthusiasts alike.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Kanke Local Government: Millet, Guinea corn, Beans, Groundnut, Bambara nuts, Acha, Sweet potatoes, Yams.

 

Local Markets in Kanke: 

– Dawaki Market ; Items Sold: Livestock, Guinea Corn, Maize, Millet, Acha (Amper, Saturday).

– Amper Market (Saturday); Items sold:  corn, beans, ground nuts, millet.

– Langshi Market (Tuesday); Items Sold: Olives, Acha, millet, cassava, rice. 

 

Kanam:

Kanam, a Local Government Area nestled within Plateau State, Nigeria, boasts Dengi as its administrative headquarters. Spanning an expansive 2,600 square kilometers, Kanam was home to a population of 165,898 during the 2006 census. The languages spoken within Kanam encompass Boghom, Jahr, and Basharawa.

 

One of the notable cultural traditions in Kanam is the Lele-Wayo cultural dance, which holds historical significance and continues to thrive as a masquerade performance among the Kanam people. This captivating masquerade performance typically takes place upon the passing of an elderly or prominent individual within a family or community. Beyond its role in commemorating such events, the Lele-Wayo cultural dance serves as a means to address and correct societal issues. It is primarily performed by the Khinepai (Piam Dauni) axis of Kanam LGA, comprising Kinam, Dal, Mun, Gillong, and Bunwur.

 

Kanam LGA hosts major festivals that add to its cultural vibrancy, notably the Bogghom Day and Jhar Day celebrations. These festivals unfold during the months of January and February, bringing communities together in revelry and tradition.

 

Kanam also boasts a range of tourist sites that showcase the natural beauty and cultural heritage of the region. Among these are:

 

1. Gom-Gom Forest: Nestled in Gumshir, this forest invites visitors to immerse themselves in nature’s splendor.

 

2. Furyam Gidindutse: Located in Furyam, this site offers a unique glimpse into the local landscape.

 

3. Bagyar Hill: Found in Bagyar within Kanam LGA, this hill serves as another testament to the area’s captivating natural wonders.

 

Kanam Local Government Area combines rich cultural traditions, captivating festivals, and picturesque tourist attractions, making it a multifaceted region worth exploring and cherishing.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Kanam Local Government : Maize, Cotton, Guinea corn, Sugar cane, Millet, Cowpeas, Rice, Groundnuts, Bambara nuts.

 

Local Markets in Kanam: 

 

– Kukawa Market (Friday); Items Sold: Cattle, Cotton.

Jarmi Market (Wednesday) ; Items sold: Cattle, Beans, Groundnut.

– Dengi Market (Friday); Items Sold: Beans, Groundnuts, groundnut oil.

– Kafel Market (Sunday); Items Sold: Cattle, Maize, Sugar cane.

 

 

Langtang North:

 

Langtang North Local Government Area is the cradle of the Tarok people’s rich cultural heritage. It serves as a canvas for various events and ceremonies that beautifully showcase their vibrant culture, including the renowned Ilum Ötarok.

 

Sub-Cultural Celebrations:

Within the tapestry of Tarok culture, several sub-cultural celebrations add even more depth and diversity. These include:

 

– Gbak Day: A special occasion steeped in tradition and significance.

– Nimbar Day: A cultural celebration that offers a unique glimpse into Tarok heritage.

– Gani Day: An event that resonates with the essence of Tarok culture.

– Bwarat Day: A day marked by cultural festivities and traditional practices.

– Gazum Day: Another important cultural celebration cherished by the Tarok people.

 

Traditionalist Cultural Activities:

The Tarok community boasts a connection to its ancestral roots through various traditionalist cultural activities. These activities serve as a bridge to the past and include:

 

– Nce Awap/Ibyari: An annual ritual performed by traditionalists to honor the memory of past priests (ponzhinbin) and revered forefathers.

– Nce Orim: A cultural activity that holds deep cultural significance.

– Nkampe Shooting of the Moon: An intriguing tradition that captures the imagination.

 

Langtang North Local Government Area is a treasure trove of Tarok culture, where each event and activity paints a vivid picture of their heritage. These celebrations and rituals are not just moments in time; they are living traditions that connect the Tarok people to their roots and history.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Langtang North Local Government: Groundnut, Maize, Pepper, Cotton, Millet, Cowpea, Rice, Yam, Cassava, Guinea corn, Bambara nuts.

 

Local Markets in Langtang North: 

 

– Ganjuwa Market (Thursdays); Items sold: Beans, Guinea Corns, Maize, Cotton, ground nuts.

– Gum Market (Wednesday); Items Sold: Cotton, guinea corns, maize, ground nuts, beans.

– Gumshar Market (Saturday); Items Sold: Feeder market, established in the time of crises so people do not go there.

– Damaria Market (Monday); Items Sold: Guinea corn, ground nuts, millet.

– Balla Market (Tuesday); Items Sold: Guinea corn, groundnuts, millet.

– Pilgani Market (Wednesday); Items Sold: Guinea corn, ground nuts, millet.

– Bidel Market (Thursday); Items Sold: Guinea corn, groundnut, millet.

 

Langtang South:

Langtang South Local Government Area is proudly home to a deeply cherished and historically significant festival known as “Ilum Oga Langtang-South.” This festival is more commonly referred to as “Resettlement Day” and holds a unique place in the heart of the community. What makes it even more remarkable is that its origins predate the establishment of Langtang South as a distinct region.

 

The roots of this celebration trace back to the year 1948 when the area we now know as Langtang South served as a resettlement haven for veterans of the Second World War. Historical accounts tell us that these resettled veterans saw an annual celebration as an opportunity to come together. Through this celebration, they sought to foster unity among themselves and promote a sense of cultural togetherness.

 

During the festivities, all the various tribes residing within the region would gather, adorned in their vibrant cultural attire. They would proudly showcase their rich cultural heritage, captivating the spectators with their traditions and customs. This tradition has persevered through the years and is now a highly anticipated event held every first Saturday in the month of March.

 

The enduring success and significance of this celebration have left an indelible mark on the hearts of the local inhabitants. Each passing year, they eagerly anticipate the arrival of this cultural extravaganza, reminiscing about the previous year’s festivities with great nostalgia. Beyond its cultural splendor, this festival has played a pivotal role in unifying the diverse people of Langtang South. It serves as a rallying point for the region’s overall development and progress.

 

In addition to the central annual celebration, various sub-clans within the area also host their own annual festivals. Notably, these sub-festivals are thoughtfully scheduled to avoid overlapping dates. Among these vibrant sub-festivals are “Illum Ö Zinni,” “Ilum Oga Bwarat,” and “Illum Oga Sa.” Each of these events adds its unique colors and flavors to the rich cultural tapestry of Langtang South.

 

Langtang South Local Government Area is a place of natural beauty intertwined with cultural significance. The “Ilum Oga Langtang-South” festival, and its accompanying sub-festivals, are a testament to the unwavering cultural pride, unity, and identity of its people. These celebrations not only honor the past but also serve as a beacon guiding the community towards a brighter future.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Langtang  South Local Government: 

Langtang South: Groundnuts, Rice, Maize, Yams, Cassava, Yams.

 

Local Markets in Langtang South: 

– Gazum Market (Friday); Items Sold: Guinea corn, ground nuts, millet.

– General Market (Saturday); Items sold: Guinea corn, ground nuts, millet.

– Faiul Market; Items sold: Yams, grains (guinea corn).

– Timbul Market; Items Sold: Yam, grains (guinea corn).

– Sabon gida; Items sold: Yam, ground nuts, Guinea corn, rice.

– Turaki Market (Thursday); Items sold: Yam, ground nuts, guinea corn, rice.

– Mabudi Market (Friday); Item sold: Yam.

– Dadinkowa Market (Sunday); Item sold: Rice.

 

 

Mikang:

Mikang Local Government Area, with its administrative center in Tunkus, covers a total land area of 739 square kilometers and was home to a population of 97,411, according to the 2006 census. The linguistic diversity of Mikang is reflected in the languages spoken, which include Koenoem, Yuom, Tehl, Miryam, and Piapung.

 

Within Mikang LGA, various districts and villages contribute to its vibrant tapestry:

 

Garkawa District:

– Gingim

– Jimakwi

– Killa

– Kongnati

– Lahil

– Longgkrom

– Poensong

– Rotha

– Swoshal

– Tudun Wada

– Yakoep

 

Koenoem District:

– Lifidi

– Lun-Niyu (Lifin)

– Nwoop

– Pangshot

– Pangsot

– Zomo

 

Montol District:

– Baltep

– Betkang

– Dinmunapus

– Katai

– Kirgagan

– Laham

– Lalin

– Met

– Nanes

– Ngaj

– Pockot

– Pocyuum

– Swakan

– Tak Doka

– Talme

– Tengnadung

– Tunkus

 

Piapung District:

– Gotlong

– Koetes

– Longbis

– Pangjiem

– Piaber

– Piapung

– Poetok

– Tangguk

– Zamkoeop

 

Mikang Local Government Area is a diverse and culturally rich region, boasting a mosaic of languages, districts, and villages that contribute to its unique character and heritage.

 

Agriculture and Crops cultivated in Mikang Local Government: Guinea corn, Groundnuts, Bambara nuts, Cowpeas, Millet, Maize, Yams, Cassava.

 

Local Markets in Mikang: 

– Tunkus and Garkawa; Items sold Guinea corn, Groundnuts, Bambara nuts, Cowpeas, Millet, Maize, Yams, Cassava.

 

Qua’anpan:

 

Qua’an-Pana Local Government Area, carved out of Shendam Local Government by General Ibrahim B. Babangida on May 3rd, 1989, is a region of both historical significance and abundant natural resources. Nestled in the heart of Plateau State, Nigeria, this area has thrived in agriculture, cultivating a variety of crops and produce including yams, maize, rice, millet, palm oil, cassava, beniseed, soybeans, guinea corn, sorghum, groundnut, Bambara nut, mangoes, cashew, and Shea butter.

 

Tourism Potential:

Qua’an-Pana Local Government Area is a true gem for tourists and nature enthusiasts. It boasts an impressive array of tourism potentials that showcase the region’s natural beauty and historical significance.

 

1. Pandam Game Reserve and Holiday Resort: This famous destination is a haven for wildlife enthusiasts. It offers an opportunity to observe the diverse fauna of the area while providing a serene environment for relaxation.

 

2. Lardang Underground Enclavement: Delve into the past with a visit to the Lardang cave, a traditional site once used by the indigenous people as a shelter during times of conflict. This historical site echoes with tales of resilience and survival.

 

3. Scenic Beauty: Qua’an-Pana’s landscape is adorned with majestic mountain ranges that create breathtaking natural scenery. From rolling hills to lush valleys, the region’s beauty is sure to captivate any visitor.

 

4. Unidentified Tourist Sites: Beyond the well-known attractions, the area hides several unidentified tourist sites waiting to be discovered. Exploring the unknown is an adventure in itself.

 

Cultural Festivals:

 

Qua’an-Pana Local Government Area comes alive with a multitude of annual cultural festivals, each offering a unique glimpse into the rich heritage of the community. Prominent among these festivals are:

 

1. Waptoer

2. Kwamteng

3. Kwa-Kwa

4. Maoup

5. Kogol

6. Koes

7. Swoet

 

These festivals, often celebrated in the months of March and April, are marked by vibrant traditions, colorful attire, and lively celebrations. Participants adorn themselves with leaves, animal skins around the waist and head, and the Gare, a traditional garment worn by both men and women. These festivals not only celebrate the community’s heritage but also foster a sense of unity and identity among its people.

 

Qua’an-Pana Local Government Area stands as a testament to the rich tapestry of Plateau State, where history, nature, and culture converge to create an unforgettable experience for visitors and a source of pride for its residents.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Qua’an Pan Local Government:  Rice, Yam, Maize, Cassava, Sorghum, Bambara nuts.

 

Local Markets In Qua’an Pan: 

 

– Bakin Ciyawa Market (Wednesday); Items Sold: Rice, Yams, ground nuts, beans.

– Gidan Rabat Market (Sunday); Items sold Rice, yams, ground nuts, beans.

– Namu Market (Friday); Items sold: Rice, yams, ground nuts, beans, cassava.

– Kurgi Market (Monday); Items sold: Yams, ground nuts, beans.

 

Shendam:

 

Shendam Local Government Area, established in 1976, is situated 254km to the south of Jos, the capital of Plateau State. Covering approximately 2,437.15 square km, it is home to a population of 208,017 as per the 2006 census projection.

 

The primary indigenous tribe in this region is the Goemai, while other settlers include the Ngas, Montol, Mupun, Taroh, Mwaghavul, Kwalla, Fulani, Igbo, Yoruba, and more.

 

In response to a realization that preserving culture is essential for societal identity, the Goemai Unity and Development Organisation (GUDO) was formed in the early 80s. This organization aims to promote unity and development among the Goemai people and showcase their rich cultural heritage to the world.

 

A significant event organized by GUDO is the Bít Goemai (Goemai Day) National Festival of Arts and Culture, inaugurated in 1986. This festival features a vibrant display of cultural dances, masquerades, and a variety of local Goemai dishes.

 

Cultural Dances:

 

1. Kallangu:A popular Goemai dance where participants, both men and women, form a revolving circle. Women wear the Goemai Cultural Attire (Adere) from the chest downward, while men tie Adere from their waist downward.

 

2. Swaal: Swaal masquerades are known for their cult-like costume and the participation of women who hold two bats (beets) in their hands, creating loud sounds in rhythm with drumbeats. Swaal masquerades also wear metal accessories on their legs for added sound effects.

 

3. Kwamteng: A cult dance performed by initiated men who dress in Adere during the performance.

 

4. Jap Kool: Newly initiated young men, after rigorous training in the shrine, participate in the Kwamteng dance and are confirmed as full members.

 

5. Dabit Masquerade: The supreme masquerade in Goemai land, appearing during significant events like the death of the Lòng Goemai or the installation of a new Lòng Goemai. Dabit’s verdict is final in any matter involving Goemai masquerades.

 

6. Jap-Jan: The most popular and friendly Goemai masquerade dance group, known for its versatility and ability to perform at various occasions without cultural or religious restrictions.

 

Local Dishes:

During auspicious occasions, the Goemai people showcase their cherished local dishes, including:

 

1. Mwollam (Amorah): Starch prepared with ingredients like tomatoes, tatase, ridi (beneseed or groundnuts), Maggi, salt, fish, or meat. There is also baked amorah with simpler ingredients like groundnuts, maggi, and salt.

 

2. Soema (Risga): Dried risga soaked in water, boiled, and mixed with groundnut cake (kulikuli), pepper, tomatoes, onions, and other seasonings.

 

Shendam LGA also boasts several tourist attractions, such as the Jelbank Rock, Nroam Lake, Shargang Lake, and Dogon Ruwa at Jiban & Kuka.

 

In addition to the Bít Goemai National Festival of Arts and Culture, various communities within the Goemai nation organize cultural festivals like Bit Poll & Bit Ngwa, Bit Goeka, Bit Kalong and Bit Poeship, Bit Ngootlong, Bit Ngootdu’ut, and Bit Nder, each celebrated at specific times throughout the year.

 

Agriculture and Crop Cultivated in Shendam Local Government: Yams, Rice, Guinea corn, Maize, Cassava, Millet, Groundnuts.

 

Local Markets in Shendam: 

– Shimankar & Bakin Kogi market; items sold:  Yams, rice, millet, Cassava, Fish.

– Yelwa Inshar Market; Items sold: Yams, rice, millet, Cassava, Fish.

– Ramsbia market; Items sold: Yams, Rice, Millet, Cassava.

– Biem Biem & Moekat Market; items sold: Yams, Rice, Millet, cassava.

– Shendam Market; Items sold: Yams, rice, millet, Cassava, Fish.

 

Wase:

Wase is a prominent town and Local Government Area (LGA) situated in Plateau State, Nigeria, located approximately 216 kilometers southeast of Jos, the capital of Plateau State. This region is named after the nearby Wase River, and it boasts a rich cultural and geographical heritage. Here are some key details about Wase LGA:

 

Geography and Population:

– Location:Wase LGA is positioned to the southeast of Jos.

– Area: The LGA covers an expansive area of 1,750 square kilometers.

– Population:As of 2016, the population of Wase LGA was recorded at 209,400 people.

 

Languages:

The primary languages spoken in Wase are Jukun and Taroh, reflecting the linguistic diversity of the region.

 

Historical Background:

The history of Wase dates back to around 1820 when it was founded by a Fulani official from Bauchi. Initially, it served as a chiefdom under the rule of the Jukun people and was primarily inhabited by the Basherawa. However, with the arrival of British troops in 1898, Wase became part of the British Royal Niger Company protectorate, later integrated into Northern Nigeria. It was included in Plateau Province when this province was established in 1926 and remained in Plateau State following Nigeria’s independence in 1960.

 

Natural Attractions:

Wase LGA boasts remarkable natural features and wildlife preservation efforts, including:

– Wase Rock: A massive, dome-shaped rock formation of volcanic origin that stands at an impressive 350 meters in height. Its size and distinctiveness make it visible from a distance of approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles).

– Bird Sanctuary: Around 321 hectares (790 acres) of land in the vicinity of Wase is conserved for wildlife development and serves as a bird sanctuary. It’s home to local species such as the Rossy White Pelican.

 

Mining Activities:

Wase LGA is renowned for its mining activities, with substantial deposits of lead, zinc, tin, and other minerals. These resources have attracted interest from Chinese investors, leading to the construction of infrastructure like local bridges and mining facilities. However, the impact of these investments on the local community has been variable, and infrastructure development does not always benefit the local population.

 

Agriculture and Crops Cultivated in Wase Local Government: 

 Guinea corn, Cowpeas, Maize, Rice, Millet, Cassava, Soya beans, Watermelon, Sweet melon.

 

Local Markets in Wase: 

 

– Wase Market (Friday); Items sold: Maize, guinea corn, beans, millet.

– Wadata Market (Wednesday); Items sold Maize, Yams, Grains, cattle.

– Kadarko Market (Monday); Items Sold: Maize, Yams, Rice.

– Lamba Market (Thursday); Items sold: Maize, Rice.

– Bashar Market (Sunday); Items sold: Cattle (every week), millet beans.

– Kampany Market (Friday); Item sold: Cattle.

– Mavo Market (Tuesday); Item sold: Groundnut.